Principles of Art and Design

1 July 2024

1. Balance

Balance refers to the visual weight of the painting. It helps the art piece to achieve a sense of stability and equilibrium.

2. Movement

Movement is a principle which brings the artwork or sculpture to life. It ensures that the audience’s eyes are moving around the artwork, in a way that the artist intended.

3. Rhythm

Rhythm, unlike pattern, depends on bringing variety. Rhythm is created through the non-uniform yet harmonious repetition of components.

4. Emphasis

As the name suggests, emphasis creates contrast within a painting by propelling one area to the audience’s view through visual dominance.

5. Contrast

Contrast is the virtue through which one out of the two juxtaposed elements is relatively emphasized. It is to be noted that contrasting areas would be the first to catch the viewer’s attention.

6. Pattern

The pattern is the uniform repetition of a singular or a combination of elements. Even the most basic dots can be turned into a pattern by repetition.

7. Unity or Variety

Unity unifies the composition, whereas variety disperses the elements. An artwork must strike a delicate balance between unity and variety.