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Empowerment in Every Corner: The Empowerment of Women in India through Modern Kitchens, Toilets & Bedrooms


The advent of modern amenities in Indian households has significantly transformed the lives of women, reshaping their roles and enhancing their empowerment. Among these amenities, modern kitchens, toilets, and bedrooms stand out as powerful tools that have played a crucial role in elevating the status of women in contemporary India. These facilities go beyond mere convenience; they symbolise the strides towards gender equality and women’s liberation within the domestic sphere. Modern kitchens have revolutionised meal preparation, saving time and effort, and allowing women to engage in educational and professional pursuits. McKinsey Global Institute’s report on the power of parity suggests that if women in India had the same access to economic opportunities as men, it could add $770 billion to the country’s GDP by 2025 [1]. Modern household amenities are key enablers in this regard.  Improved toilets and bathrooms have brought about a paradigm shift in health and hygiene, reducing the prevalence of diseases and contributing to overall well-being. This newfound ease in managing household responsibilities has enabled women to attain greater independence, participate more actively in the workforce, and assert their rights and voices within their families and communities. 

The International Labour Organisation (ILO) reported that access to time-saving kitchen technologies has enabled more women to join the workforce. In urban areas, women’s participation in paid employment increased by 15% after modern kitchen appliances became widely accessible [2]. Traditionally, Indian women were confined to the roles of homemakers and caregivers, spending long hours performing labour-intensive household chores without the aid of modern conveniences. The absence of proper kitchen appliances, sanitary toilets, and modern bedrooms meant that women faced significant health risks, time constraints, and limitations on their personal and professional development. Understanding this historical context highlights the profound impact that modern amenities have had on women’s lives.

1. Modern Kitchens: A Catalyst for Empowerment

According to a study by the National Council of Applied Economic Research (NCAER), the introduction of modern kitchen appliances such as gas stoves, refrigerators, and microwaves has reduced the average cooking time for women by nearly 50%. The evolution of modern kitchens in Indian households has brought about profound changes, significantly impacting the lives of women. These kitchens, equipped with appliances such as gas stoves, microwaves, and refrigerators etc. have revolutionised traditional cooking practices, offering unprecedented convenience and efficiency. The transformation has not only redefined the domestic sphere but also facilitated women’s empowerment by enabling them to pursue education, careers, and economic independence.

Convenience and Time-Saving

Modern kitchens have introduced a level of convenience that was unimaginable in traditional Indian households. The introduction of gas stoves has replaced the labour-intensive and time-consuming process of cooking on wood or coal stoves. This shift has freed women from the arduous task of gathering firewood or coal, a chore that often consumed a significant portion of their day. Gas stoves offer a clean and efficient way to prepare meals, drastically reducing cooking time and effort.

Microwaves and other modern appliances have further streamlined meal preparation. Quick and easy heating, defrosting, and cooking options mean that meals can be prepared in a fraction of the time it used to take. This time-saving aspect is crucial, as it allows women to allocate more time to educational and professional pursuits. Data from the Ministry of Women and Child Development (MWCD) indicates that girls and young women in households with modern kitchens are 20% more likely to complete their secondary education compared to those without [3]. The ability to balance domestic responsibilities with personal development and career aspirations is a significant step towards achieving gender equality.

Moreover, the convenience of modern kitchens extends to water supply and storage solutions. Traditional kitchens often lacked running water, requiring women to fetch water from distant sources. Modern kitchens with piped water supply and storage facilities eliminate this burden, offering a hygienic and efficient way to handle daily chores. [4]This newfound ease allows women to engage in activities that promote self-improvement and professional growth, contributing to their overall empowerment.

Health and Hygiene

The improvements in health and hygiene brought about by modern kitchens are substantial. Traditional cooking methods, particularly the use of wood or coal stoves, produce smoke and soot, leading to severe respiratory problems and other health issues. Gas stoves, in contrast, provide a cleaner and safer alternative, significantly reducing indoor air pollution and associated health risks.

Refrigerators have revolutionised food storage, preserving food for extended periods and reducing the risk of foodborne illnesses. In traditional setups, lack of proper storage often led to food spoilage, posing health hazards. Modern refrigeration ensures that food remains fresh and safe to consume, improving the overall health outcomes for families. This shift towards better health and hygiene is a critical factor in empowering women, as it reduces the time and resources spent on dealing with health issues, allowing them to focus on other important aspects of their lives.

Economic Empowerment

The advent of modern kitchens has also paved the way for economic opportunities for women. [5] With the convenience of modern appliances, many women have been able to turn their culinary skills into profitable ventures. Home-based food businesses, catering services, and other food-related enterprises have become viable options for women looking to achieve financial independence.

This financial independence is transformative, boosting women’s self-esteem and giving them a greater role in household decision-making. The additional income generated from these ventures contributes to the family’s economic stability, further enhancing the woman’s standing within the household. Economic empowerment through modern kitchens enables women to assert their rights and take on leadership roles, both within their families and in the broader community.

2. Modern Toilets: Transforming Lives and Empowering Women

The introduction of modern toilets in Indian households and communities has brought about a transformative change, significantly impacting women’s health, dignity, and opportunities. These facilities, which ensure proper sanitation and hygiene, have addressed long-standing issues of health risks, privacy, and educational barriers. The Swachh Bharat Mission (Clean India Mission) has led to the construction of over 100 million toilets across India. [6] According to the World Health Organisation (WHO), this has significantly reduced the incidence of waterborne diseases such as diarrhoea, which disproportionately affect women and children. [7][8]The impact of modern toilets extends beyond mere convenience, playing a crucial role in the empowerment and upliftment of women in India.

Sanitation and Health

The provision of modern toilets has had a profound impact on women’s health and well-being. Access to sanitary facilities has drastically reduced the incidence of diseases caused by poor sanitation, such as diarrhoea, cholera, and urinary tract infections. In many rural areas, where open defecation was once prevalent, the introduction of modern toilets has brought about a significant improvement in public health. Open defecation poses numerous health risks, including contamination of water sources and the spread of infectious diseases. By providing a safe and sanitary alternative, modern toilets help create a healthier living environment, reducing the burden of disease and improving overall community health.

Furthermore, the availability of clean and functional toilets directly influences women’s reproductive health. Women no longer have to hold their bladder for extended periods or use unsanitary facilities, practices that often lead to urinary tract infections and other health complications. The reduction in health issues means women can lead healthier lives, with fewer days lost to illness, allowing them to engage more fully in daily activities and responsibilities.

Dignity and Privacy

The introduction of private toilets has provided women with a sense of dignity and privacy that was often lacking in traditional settings. For adolescent girls and women, particularly in rural areas, the lack of private sanitation facilities meant they had to venture out in the open, often before dawn or after dusk, to maintain some semblance of privacy. This practice exposed them to the risks of harassment, assault, and wild animal attacks, compromising their safety and dignity.

Modern toilets ensure that women can attend to their sanitation needs in a safe and private environment. The National Family Health Survey (NFHS) reported a 30% decrease in cases of violence and harassment against women due to increased access to private, in-home toilets. [9] This is especially important during menstruation, a time when women require increased privacy and hygiene. Access to private toilets allows women to maintain their personal hygiene with dignity, reducing the stigma and challenges associated with menstruation. The sense of security and dignity that comes with private sanitation facilities cannot be overstated, as it fundamentally alters women’s daily experiences and enhances their quality of life.

Educational and Employment Opportunities

Access to proper sanitation facilities has a direct impact on girls’ education. UNESCO found that the availability of proper sanitation facilities in schools has increased the attendance rates of adolescent girls by 17%, as they no longer miss school during menstruation. [9]. Schools equipped with clean and safe toilets see higher attendance rates among girls, particularly during menstruation. In the absence of proper facilities, many girls are forced to miss school during their menstrual periods, leading to gaps in their education and ultimately higher dropout rates. The presence of adequate sanitation facilities in schools ensures that girls can attend regularly, without interruption, and focus on their studies.

Improved attendance and educational outcomes open up more opportunities for women in the workforce. Educated women are better equipped to pursue higher education and professional careers, contributing to their economic independence and empowerment. Furthermore, the presence of modern toilets in workplaces ensures that women can work in environments that respect their sanitation needs, making it easier for them to remain in the workforce.

Modern bedrooms in India play a pivotal role in empowering women by providing them with spaces that cater to their evolving needs, aspirations, and roles within society. From enhancing privacy and comfort to facilitating work-life balance and promoting safety, modern bedrooms have become integral in shaping the empowerment landscape for women across the country.

3. The Transformative Role of Modern Bedrooms for Women in India

Personal Space and Privacy

One of the most significant contributions of modern bedrooms is the provision of personal space and privacy. In traditional Indian households, shared living spaces often limit privacy, especially for women. Modern bedrooms, however, offer a retreat where women can have personal time, pursue hobbies, and relax away from the demands of household activities. This autonomy fosters a sense of independence and self-reliance, crucial elements of empowerment.

Comfort and well-being are equally important aspects addressed by modern bedroom designs. These spaces are crafted to prioritise comfort, with ergonomic furniture, temperature control, and sound insulation contributing to a conducive environment for rest and relaxation. Such considerations are essential for women’s physical and mental health, promoting overall well-being and productivity.

Integration of Workspaces

Moreover, the integration of workspaces within modern bedrooms has redefined how women manage professional responsibilities. With the rise of remote work and entrepreneurship, many women find themselves balancing career demands with domestic duties. A designated workspace within the bedroom allows for seamless transitions between work and home life, empowering women to pursue career aspirations while maintaining household responsibilities.

Technological advancements have also transformed modern bedrooms into hubs of digital connectivity. Smart devices and home automation systems enable women to manage household tasks efficiently, access information instantly, and stay connected with family and friends. This technological integration not only streamlines daily routines but also empowers women by providing tools for informed decision-making and active participation in digital spaces.

Safety and security are paramount concerns addressed by modern bedroom features. Enhanced security systems, such as smart locks and surveillance cameras, offer women peace of mind, ensuring their safety within the confines of their homes. This sense of security is crucial for fostering independence and allowing women to navigate public and private spaces confidently.

Self-Expression and Creativity

Beyond functionality, modern bedrooms serve as platforms for self-expression and creativity. Women can personalise their spaces, reflecting their individual tastes, cultural preferences, and aspirations. This freedom of expression cultivates a sense of identity and agency, reinforcing their role as active contributors to household dynamics and societal norms.

Social connectivity also thrives within modern bedrooms, facilitated by digital platforms and social media. Women can engage in online communities, build networks, and access resources that promote knowledge sharing and collective empowerment. This interconnectedness fosters solidarity among women, amplifying their voices and advocating for social change.

Challenges and Future Prospects

Despite the significant progress, challenges remain in ensuring that all women in India have access to these modern amenities. Rural and economically disadvantaged communities still face barriers in accessing modern kitchens, toilets, and bathrooms. Organisations like Oxfam India, the Centre for Science and Environment (CSE), and others often publish reports on sanitation and rural development, providing data on access gaps and recommendations for policy interventions. [10] Government policies and initiatives must continue to focus on bridging this gap, ensuring that the benefits of modernisation reach every woman.


Modern kitchens, toilets, and bedrooms have undeniably empowered modern Indian women, transforming their lives in numerous ways. These amenities have provided women with the tools to manage their time efficiently, maintain better health and hygiene, and pursue educational and economic opportunities. As India continues to develop, it is essential to ensure that these benefits are extended to all women, enabling them to achieve their full potential and contribute to the nation’s progress.

Feature Image Courtesy: Godrej Interio


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